L’antica rosa esiste solo nel nome: noi possediamo nudi nomi – Stat rosa pristina nomine, nomina nuda tenemus. (Umberto Eco, frase finale del Nome della rosa che cita Bernardo di Cluny)

La moda femminile del Settecento

L’abito femminile subisce notevoli cambiamenti dopo il primo quarto del XVIII secolo, quando raggiunge un’alta espressione di grazia e raffinatezza, fino ad assumere, verso gli anni 60-70, forme sempre più voluminose ed ingombranti, per arrivare poi al declino con la rivoluzione francese.

Già nel Rinascimento la moda obbliga la donna a portare sotto gli abiti rigidi corsetti steccati, che nel Settecento raggiungono forme sempre più strette. Confezionati con stoffe più o meno pregiate, hanno sottili stecche di balena cucite all’interno, dando così al busto una rigidità e una forma totalmente lineare, talvolta erano talmente stretti che impedivano la flessione del busto in modo naturale.

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Per quanto riguarda l’abito, nella sua parte inferiore si abbandona il modello verticale con drappeggi e lunghi strascichi tipica del Seicento e si passa prima ad una forma ampia e rotonda, quasi a campana, tipica dello stile reggenza, quindi ad una totalmente orizzontale con fianchi ampi e gonfi, tipici dello stile Rococò . Nasce così l’esigenza di ampliare i vestiti lateralmente e fa la sua comparsa una struttura da legare sui fianchi, detta “panier”.

Fanoni di balena, bambù, cerchi metallici, incernierati per permettere alle dame di sedersi, sono tutti materiali nati come sorta di cuscini imbottiti di crine, che via via si trasformano, diventando delle vere e proprie strutture portanti. Queste strutture, dal 1703, divennero protagoniste della moda di tutto il secolo: e proprio in quell’anno, fece la sua prima comparsa un abito che per circa sessant’anni dettò le regole della moda,:

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“L’Andrienne”

Il nome Andrienne nasce da una commedia di Baron in cui la protagonista entrò in scena così abbigliata, che suscitò subito scalpore; in seguito il modello venne adottato da tutta l’aristocrazia femminile.

Nonostante le molteplici variazioni, mantenne lo stile iniziale con una scollatura quadrata ed una serie di pieghe cucite sulla sommità delle spalle che scendono piatte sulla schiena fino a terra terminando in un piccolo strascico. La parte anteriore e laterale del busto è invece aderente al corsetto sottostante e si apre sul davanti, dalla vita in giù, come un triangolo rovesciato; i laterali vengono drappeggiati con piccole pieghe o arricciate tramite un nastro interno sui fianchi del panier, posto sotto la gonna.

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La gonna era solitamente un telo dritto legato in vita tramite un nastro ed aperto dietro (sottanino). I sarti dell’epoca si sbizzarrirono nelle decorazioni di questi abiti creando, pur con lo stesso modello, dei capi decisamente esclusivi per bellezza e valore: ruches di nastro, pizzi, bordure, passamanerie, pietre preziose e quant’altro si potesse usare in quel periodo, permisero di realizzare modelli aggraziati e frivoli tipici della femminilità del Settecento.

Nella seconda metà del 700 dall’Inghilterra arrivarono nuovi modelli di abiti femminili che verranno chiamati “Robe a l’Anglaise”; questi presero subito spazio nelle toilette delle nobildonne in tutt’Europa. Il nuovo abbigliamento propone una linea ampia ma più lineare, senza mantello e con il dorso più aderente, con pieghe cucite fino in vita che andavano a fondersi con una grande quantità di piegoline in un’ampia gonna che scendeva fino a terra.

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L’’utilizzo di materiali sempre più particolari e preziosi fece sì che, pur di seguire la moda, molte persone s’indebitassero sino alla rovina, motivando così la scelta dell’ultimo quarto di secolo dove s’iniziò ad usare stoffe e decori meno cari e ricercati e forme più pratiche e comode, rinunciando perfino agli scomodi pa- niers , facendo un grosso passo indietro nella moda e tornando così a slanciare la figura femminile del periodo Neoclassico.

Con la rivoluzione francese del 1789 la moda cambia radicalmente: niente più sfarzi e ostentazioni, si chiude così un secolo di moda ricca ed eccessiva, che rimarrà esclusiva del Settecento.

Una Risposta

  1. Che sofferenza!non le invidio per nulla!

    Mi piace

    1 dicembre 2012 alle 1:03 pm

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